The Safavid state was one of checks and balance, both within the government and on a local level. They are little tainted with avarice, desiring only to acquire in order to spend. Consequently, they were slowly able to take on administrative jobs in areas which had hitherto been the exclusive preserve of the ethnic Persians.. According to the historian Roger Savory, the twin bases of the domestic economy were pastoralism and agriculture. The leadership of the order passed on from Sadr ud-Dīn Mūsā to his son Khwādja Ali († 1429) and in turn to his son Ibrāhīm († 1429–47). When Shah Tahmasp entered the throne at a young age, Persia was in a dire state. 100. From the time of Shah Abbas onwards, more land was brought under the direct control of the shah. In 1722, an Afghan army led by Mir Wais’ son Mahmud advanced on the heart of the empire and defeated the government forces at the Battle of Gulnabad. As he describes them:. He then besieged the capital of Isfahan, until Shah Sultan Husayn abdicated and acknowledged him as the new king of Persia.. His palace workshops produced beautiful porcelains, clothes, and rugs. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp, while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well. What is India . He wholeheartedly adopted the use of gunpowder (See Military history of Iran). Tahmasp made the Peace of Amasya with the Ottomans in 1555, ending the war during his life.. Sunnis. The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be Seyyeds, family descendants of the prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim.  A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan. They correctly identified the three key points to control all seaborne trade between Asia and Europe: The Gulf of Aden, The Persian Gulf and the Straits of Malacca by cutting off and controlling these strategic locations with high taxation. In 1501, the Safavid Shahs declared independence when the Ottomans outlawed Shi'a Islam in their territory. It was certainly not homogenous—maybe it was an Azerbaijanian-Ottoman mixed language, as Beltadze (1967:161) states for a translation of the gospels in Georgian script from the 18th century. After Safī al-Dīn, the leadership of the Safaviyya passed onto Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā († 794/1391–92). The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be Seyyeds, family descendants of the prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim. Isfahan bears the most prominent samples of the Safavid architecture, all constructed in the years after Shah Abbas I permanently moved the capital there in 1598: the Imperial Mosque, Masjid-e Shah, completed in 1630, the Imam Mosque (Masjid-e Imami) the Lutfallah Mosque and the Royal Palace.  But overland trade between Iran and South Asia grew. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands which sought Persian carpet, silk and textiles. Distinctive monuments like the Sheikh Lotfallah (1618), Hasht Behesht (Eight Paradise Palace) (1469) and the Chahar Bagh School(1714) appeared in Isfahan and other cities. They would adorn their clothes, wearing stones and decorate the harness of their horses. The Shah himself exercised his own measures for keeping his ministers under control by fostering an atmosphere of rivalry and competitive surveillance. The tribal rivalries between the Qizilbāsh, which temporarily ceased before the defeat at Chaldiran, resurfaced in intense form immediately after the death of Ismāil, and led to ten years of civil war (930-40/1524-33) until Shāh Tahmāsp regained control of the affairs of the state. Another official selected by the consensus of the local community was the kadkhoda, who functioned as a common law administrator. An important feature of the Safavid society was the alliance that emerged between the ulama (the religious class) and the merchant community.  But the official language of the empire as well as the administrative language, language of correspondence, literature and historiography was Persian.  And as the shah realized the importance of doing trade with the Europeans, he assured that the Safavid society was one with religious tolerance. Their memory is free and prolific. Their imagination is animated, quick and fruitful. After Uzun Hassan’s death, his son Ya’qub felt threatened by the growing Safavid religious influence. , The Uzbeks, during the reign of Tahmāsp, attacked the eastern provinces of the kingdom five times and the Ottomans under Soleymān I initiated four invasions of Persia. Clothes that became soiled in any way were changed immediately. Other historians, such as Vladimir Minorsky and Roger Savory, refute this idea:. on the throne (1576–77) and after him Muhammad Shāh Khudābanda (1578–88). 2 0 obj
They wore red headgear with 12 folds, and became known as the “redheads.” In 1499, the leader of the redheads was a 14-year-old named Isma’il. Except for Shah Abbas II, the Safavid rulers after Abbas I were therefore rendered ineffectual, and the Iranian government declined and finally collapsed when a serious military threat emerged on its eastern border in the early eighteenth century. Among luminaries of this school of philosophy, the names of Iranian philosophers such as Mir Damad, Mir Fendereski, Shaykh Bahaiand Mohsen Fayz Kashani standout. Safavid Empire. It was the beginning of the East India Company’s long-running interest in Iran.. As such, the status of medicine in the Safavid period did not change much, and relied as much on these works as ever before. Abbas was unable to comply. The Qizilbash tribes were essential to the military of Iran until the rule of Shah Abbas I– their leaders were able to exercise enormous influence and participate in court intrigues (assassinating Shah Ismail II for example). Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Persian Empire (Iran), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids in power. Turkic) linguistic origins. According to some historians, including Richar…  According to Arnold J. Toynbee,, In the heyday of the Mughal, Safawi, and Ottoman regimes New Persian was being patronized as the language of litterae humaniores by the ruling element over the whole of this huge realm, while it was also being employed as the official language of administration in those two-thirds of its realm that lay within the Safawi and the Mughal frontiers. This left room for invasion by outside enemies, which is exactly what happened in 1722 when the Afghan army besieged the capital of Isfahan. Second place was held by fencing, where the wrist had to be firm but flexible and movements agile. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. They are very philosophical over the good and bad things in life and about expectations for the future. They particularly established monopoly of the spice trade between the East Indies and Iran.  The end of the reign of Abbas II, 1666, thus marked the beginning of the end of the Safavid dynasty. At that time, the most powerful dynasty in Persia was that of the Kara Koyunlu, the “Black Sheep”, whose ruler Jahan Shah ordered Junāyd to leave Ardabil or else he would bring destruction and ruin upon the city. Thanks in advanced!  The Ottoman sultans addressed him as the king of Persian lands and the heir to Jamshid and Kai Khosrow. They are wedged between the Wealthiest empire of this period (the Mughals) and the longest lasting empire of all time (the Ottomans). His History of Shah Abbas the Great written a few years after its subject’s death, achieved a nuanced depth of history and character. They finally arrived at the court of Philip III of Spain in 1602. Since the earliest days of the Safavid dynasty, the Qizilbash generals had been appointed to most of these posts. Had the gunpowder technology in mughal empire to fire greater distances. More problematic for the Safavids was the powerful Ottoman Empire. Because of the relative insecurity of property ownership in Persia, many private landowners secured their lands by donating them to the clergy as so called vaqf. However, a mutiny among his officers who refused to spend the winter at Tabriz forced him to withdraw across territory laid waste by the Safavid forces, eight days later”. There were no particular place assigned for the administration of justice. , The most precious accessory for men was the turban. Examples of such were the trade and artisan guilds, which had started to appear in Persia from the 1500s. At its zenith, during the long reign of Shah Abbas I the empire’s reach comprised Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Turkey. Daggers were worn at the waist. Succeeded by. The Safavid dynasty was founded about 1501 by Shāh Ismāil I.  When Shah Tahmasp’s throne was overtaken by his successor, Persia was in a calm state, with secure borders and cordial relations with the neighbours to both east and west. Complex, ornate palaces. It is however no question, from reading Chardin’s descriptions of their manners, that he considered them to be a well educated and well behaved people, who certainly knew the strict etiquettes of social intercourse. Dominant political factions vied for power and support three different candidates. Pertinence. Although the expedition never managed to return to Iran, being shipwrecked on the journey around Africa, it marked an important new step in contacts between Iran and Europe and Europeans began to be fascinated by the Iranians and their culture—Shakespeare’s 1601–2 Twelfth Night, for example, makes two references (at II.5 and III.4) to ‘the Sophy’, then the English term for the Shahs of Iran.  Shah Abbas continued this program and greatly expanded the ghulam military corps from a few hundred to 15 000 highly trained cavalrymen. Though Nimatullah was apparently Sunni, the Ni’matullahi order soon declared his order to be Shi’I after the rise of the Safavid dynasty.. They are very favorably drawn to the sciences, the liberal and mechanical arts. The Sherley brothers arrived in 1598 and helped reorganise the Iranian army.  The inscriptions on Safavid currency were also in Persian. Thévenot and Tavernier commented that the Persian caravanserais were better built and cleaner than their Turkish counterparts. Then he turned against the Ottomans recapturing Baghdad, eastern Iraq and the Caucasian provinces by 1622.  The ingenuity of the square, or Maidān, was that, by building it, Shah Abbas would gather the three main components of power in Persia in his own backyard; the power of the clergy, represented by the Masjed-e Shah, the power of the merchants, represented by the Imperial Bazaar, and of course, the power of the Shah himself, residing in the Ali Qapu Palace. 3 0 obj
The demise of Tamerlane’s political authority created a space in which several religious communities, particularly Shi’i ones, could now come to the fore and gain prominence. After the death of Tahmāsp in 984/1576, the struggle for a dominant position in the state flared up again and was complicated by rival groups and factions. But it was Shah Safi, under influence by his Prime Minister, Saru Taqi, that initiated the program of trying to increase the royal revenues by buying land from the governors and putting in place local commissioners. There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Persian Kurdistan,and later moved to Azerbaijan, finally settling in the 11th century CE at Ardabil. The Safavid order soon gained great influence in the city of Ardabil and Hamdullah Mustaufi noted that most of the people of Ardabil were followers of Safi al-Din. Réponse préférée. In 1598, when Shah Abbas decided to move the capital of his Persian empire from the north-western city of Qazvin to the central city of Isfahan, he initiated what would become one of the greatest programmes in Persian history; the complete remaking of the city. The Ottomans destroyed the Safavid. Safavid Empire is founded In 1501 the Safavid Empire was founded by Ismail I. Nov 12, 1508. ammianus. Nadir Shah defeated the Ghilzai Hotaki forces in the 1729 Battle of Damghan. His descriptions of the public appearance, clothes and customs are corroborated by the miniatures, drawings and paintings from that time which have survived. The terms of trade were not imposed on the Safavid shahs, but rather negotiated. The original name was just turki, and so a convenient name might be Turki-yi Acemi. The Shah had stables in all the principal towns, and Shah Abbas was said to have about 30 000 horses in studs around the country. %PDF-1.5
 In time, this proved to become a burden to the people that were under the direct rule of the Shah, as these commissioners, unlike the former governors, had little knowledge about the local communities that they controlled and were primarily interested in increasing the income of the Shah. Shah Tahmasp who has composed poetry in Persian was also a painter, while Shah Abbas II was known as a poet, writing Azerbaijani verses. Exquisitely detailed miniatures. What are some basic (historical) facts I should know about the Safavid Empire? , Under the governance of the strong shahs, especially during the first half of the 17th century, traveling through Persia was easy because of good roads and the caravanserais, that were strategically placed along the route. , By the sixteenth century, Islamic science, which to a large extent meant Persian science, was resting on its laurels. retook the area lost to the Ottomans by 1602. Haydar married Martha ‘Alamshah Begom, Uzun Hassan‘s daughter, who gave birth to Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty. Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in Azerbaijani pen-name of Khatai. One result of the resolution of this conflict was the rise in importance of the concept of ijtihad and the position of the mujtahid (as opposed to other ulama) in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Shah Abbas I recognized the commercial benefit of promoting the arts—artisan products provided much of Iran’s foreign trade. After a long and bloody siege led by the Safavid grand vizier Hatem Beg, which lasted from November 1609 to the summer of 1610, the Kurdish stronghold of Dimdim was captured. What remained unchanged, was the decentralized power structure of the government, and that would not change until the throne was overtaken by his grandson, Shah Abbas. Timuridball, Marashiyanball, Paduspanidsball, Mihrabanidsball, Afrasiab dynastyball, Kia'iball, Kingdom of Ormusball. Though that language might generally be identified as Middle Azerbaijanian, it’s not yet possible to define exactly the limits of this language, both in linguistic and territorial respects.  Losing territory in Iraq and the north-west, Tahmāsp realized that his capital was not secure, and he was forced to move the capital from Tabriz to Qazvin. Plus, they are further outcast by the fact that the Mughals and Ottomans are Sunni; the Safavids are Shi’a. , More came of Abbas’ contacts with the English, although England had little interest in fighting against the Ottomans. endobj
Instead, they first placed Ismāil II. More importantly, for the first time in Iranian history, a substantial infantry corps of musketeers (, Artillery Corps: with the help of Westerners, he also formed an artillery corps of 12 000 men, although this was the weakest element in his army. It was of mixed ancestry (Azerbaijani, Kurdish Persian and Turkmen, which included intermarriages with Georgian and Pontic Greekdignitaries). U"J�Л��o��i9���ә�F&Mb��ЇC|qOOO��O�,��0�5"�=���P;�eELX�*BdQ:04��p\���m�4���);��4I����-G�����}�ౙ��"Q���6����'4��6�S�5Y�"���8�M�0�g��3*����G�����I��hlK������D����̍���eXWͺjZ���V>����
Y���=�x�������R�H#n��H�.5�%�}nI��V�Q The three latter empires were all Islamic, and together they represent the height of Muslim political and military power in world history. A separate official, the Commander-in-Chief, was appointed to be the head of these officials. SURVEY . Their sport also provided the masses with entertainment and spectacle. Updated September 09, 2019. , The Safavids by the time of their rise were Azerbaijani-speaking although they also used Persian as a second language. Empire. GENEALOGY—THE ANCESTORS OF THE SAFAVIDS AND ITS MULTI-CULTURAL IDENTITY, ALLIANCES TO THE EAST—THE MUGHAL EMPEROR AT THE SHAH’S COURT, DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS IN A TOTALITARIAN SOCIETY, THE ARMENIAN MERCHANTS AND THE TRADE OF SILK, THE ISFAHAN SCHOOL—ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY REVIVED, THE LANGUAGES OF THE COURT, MILITARY, ADMINISTRATION AND CULTURE, Kurdish stronghold of Dimdim was captured, Al-Hikma al-muta‘aliya fi-l-asfar al-‘aqliyya al-arba‘a, http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/Safavid_Empire, Huṣayn Kīā Chalavī, the local ruler of Semnān, Shahsevans: these were 12,000 strong and built up from the small group of. They say their prayers and perform their rituals in the most devout manner. However, these cities were later inherited by his Abdali Afghan military commander, Ahmad Shah Durrani.  Having to flee from city to city, Humayun eventually sought refuge at the court of Tahmasp. The works of al-Razi (865-92) (known to the West as Razes) were still used in European universities as standard textbooks of alchemy, pharmacology and pediatrics. Time line of the Safavid Empire Timeline created by amontuori. Traditional architecture evolved in its patterns and methods leaving its impact on the architecture of the following periods. There probably did not exist any parliament, as we know them today. They also placed jewels on their arms, such as on daggers and swords. Azeri Turks were the founders of Safavid dynasty.  Some years before, in 1528, he had also converted an unfavorable war against the Uzbeks, at the battle of Jam, into a victory by the Persians. More importantly, the Dutch East India company and later English/British used their superior means of maritime violence to control trade routes in the western Indian ocean. The Ottoman Turks and Safavids fought over the fertile plains of Iraq for more than 150 years. After the death of Haydar, the Safaviyya gathered around his son Ali Mirza Safavi, who was also pursued and subsequently killed by Ya’qub. Of these various movements, the Safawid Qizilbash was the most politically resilient, and it was on account of its success that Shah Isma’il I gained political prominence in 1501 CE.  Sam Mirza, the son of Shah Esmail as well as some later authors assert that Ismail composed poems both in Turkish and Persian but only a few specimens of his Persian verse have survived. Abbas I first fought the Uzbeks, recapturing Herat and Mashhad in 1598. The exercises that they took part in were for keeping the body supple and sturdy and to acquire skills in handling of arms. Due to the great spiritual charisma of Safi al-Din, the order was later known as the Safaviyya. Second to the Prime Minister post were the General of the Revenues (mostoufi-ye mamalek), or finance minister,and the Divanbegi, Minister of Justice. Thus came the term “Turk and Tajik”, which was used by native Iranians for many generations to describe the Persianate, or Turko-Persian, nature of many dynasties which ruled over Greater Iran between the 12th and 20th centuries, in that these dynasties promoted and helped continue the dominant Persian linguistic and cultural identity of their states, although the dynasties themselves were of non-Persian (e.g. The judge (qazi) was informed of relevant points involved and would decide whether or not to take up the case. The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Shi’a Islam in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, South Asia, Central Asia, and Anatolia. Tahmasp reigned for 52 years, the longest reign in Safavid history. Mir Damad is considered the founder of this school. Rival Qizilbāsh factions fought amongst themselves for the control of the empire until Shāh Tahmāsp came of age and reasserted his authority. The trade of this product was done by Turks and Persians to begin with, but during the 17th century the Christian Armenians became increasingly vital in the trade of this merchandise, as middlemen. By travelling across the Caspian sea to the north, they would reach Russia.  Realizing this, Shah Abbas resettled large numbers of Armenians from the Caucasus to his capital city and provided them with loans. The Turkmen Ustājlū tribe, one of the most powerful tribes among the Qizilbāsh, threw its support behind Haydar, who was of a Georgian mother, but the majority of the Qizilbāsh chiefs saw this as a threat to their own, Turkmen-dominated power. The impressive achievements of its 400 000 residents prompted the inhabitants to coin their famous boast, “Isfahan is half the world”. Lv 7. The Ottoman Empire started in this country and ended in this current day country. 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