The two companies provided an estimated fifty-five men on September 11, as outlined in Table 1, and with those men missing from the line of battle, the actual casualty percentage of men engaged exceeds twenty percent. Table 2: Brandywine Killed in Action by Company. Sullivan, separated from his division during the movement to contact, remained with Sterling and Stevens as the wing commander. During the spring of 1777, Washington assembled elements of the newly formed, but seriously under-strength and untested, eighty-eight-battalion Continental Army in the Hudson River Valley for the 1777 campaign season. The nearest thing to a hard figure from the American side was by Major General Nathanael Greene, who estimated Washington’s army had lost between 1,200 and 1,300 men. With a spirted sense of urgency, but moving cross-country with a lack of knowledge of both the terrain and enemy disposition, Sullivan took his division about one half mile forward of Sterling’s and Stephen’s divisions. [13] This discipline was tested on September 11, 1777. From my perspective, the most important information came in the form of anecdotes of individual experiences. [46] These findings validate the often referenced instability and lack of continuity experienced in the Continental Army caused by extensive personnel turbulence and regular turnover of officers and enlisted men. The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of Major General George Washington and the British-Hessian army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777. British Forces was commanded by Gen. William Howe and consisted of about 15,500 Soldiers. The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American Continental Army of General George Washington and the British Army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777, as part of the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783). Most authors reference the Pennsylvania Archives when presenting casualty numbers and names. [35] Assuming seventy-two percent of the men paid for August were present at Brandywine, the 9th Pennsylvania fielded 239 men assigned to eight different companies, as reflected in Table 1 below, with a regimental headquarters of eleven field and staff officers. I never tire of hearing about the sacrifices made by our forefathers. [2] Howard H. Peckham’s 1974 work remains the most comprehensive study of Revolutionary era American casualties and outlines the death, wounding, capture or disappearance of over 53,000 Americans. Conway and the 3rd Pennsylvania Brigade passed the test, and as a result of the unit’s performance at Brandywine, Washington selected the brigade as a lead unit in the American attack at Germantown on October 4, 1777. The lack of adequate reconnaissance, poor roads and urgency in repositioning caused Sullivan to advance directly into the path of the attacking forces. [22] As a result of his division’s defeat, Sullivan found himself in command of only the two remaining divisions. [8] Trussell’s work fails to capture casualty figures that support the accounts of the intensity of combat the 9th endured as reported by those present on the Brandywine battlefield. We feature smart, groundbreaking research and well-written narratives from expert writers. Conway’s Brigade consisted of the 3rd, 6 th, 9th and 12th Pennsylvania regiments. Pennsylvania Archives, Series 5, Volume 3 (Harrisburg, PA: Harrisburg Publishing Company, State Printer, 1906), 522-523; Thomas J. McGuire, The Philadelphia Campaign: Brandywine and the Fall of Philadelphia (Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books, 2006), 1:370. He was enlisted by Captain Patrick Kennedy and deserted February 27, 1778. Lt. Col. George Nagel served as commanding officer; Maj. Matthew Smith was his regimental major serving as second in command. Washington, unimpressed with Conway’s leadership in sustaining the initial success at Germantown and for his part in the Conway Cabal, was pleased to see Conway leave the Continental Army, under a cloud of suspicion, while at Valley Forge, but that was in the future. Having conducted similar research into the unit I represent as a reenactor, I found your article quite interesting. Most men reported as missing have no further record in the regiment; their names simply disappear from the unit musters. One unit with relatively complete surviving muster and pay records is the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment during a fifteen month period, May 1777 to July 1778. As you are aware, research never ends. Thank you for confirming my thoughts on the value of a visit to the textual records section of the National Archives to research the pension files of the men of the 9th PA. The 100 Best American Revolution Books of All Time, https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/06/02/remarks-president-presentation-medal-honor, New Light on Battle Casualties: The 9th Pennsylvania Regiment at Brandywine, Better to Eat That Apple a Day: Medicine in the Revolutionary Era. The primary staff consisted of four men: William Thompson, adjutant; John Tate, paymaster; Thomas Craig, quartermaster; David Love, surgeon. The 9th Pennsylvania provides a model upon which to gage the degree of turbulence experienced by most regimental-sized units in the Continental Line. The official British casualty list detailed 587 casualties: 93 killed (eight officers, seven sergeants and 78 rank and file); 488 wounded (49 officers, 40 sergeants, four drummers and 395 rank and file); and six rank and file missing unaccounted for. During the attack at Germantown the brigade drove one of the best trained units in the British Army over a mile from their initial defensive positions. They were marching through the extreme southeastern corner of Pennsylvania and heading toward fledgling America's capital at Philadelphia. I suspect you would find a great deal of satisfaction in reading those accounts as well. Table 3: Brandywine Wounded in Action by Company and Disposition, Table 4 presents the sixteen men listed missing after the battle. Required fields are marked *. The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American Continental Army of General George Washington and the British Army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777, as part of the American Revolutionary War. A detachment of 50 waldeck infantry emerged from the town, accompanied by a small light dragoons, whose orders were to clear the area of rebel activity but were attacked be the New Jersey militia near Springfield. Our work has been featured by the New York Times, TIME magazine, History Channel, Discovery Channel, Smithsonian, Mental Floss, NPR, and more. [8]  John Sullivan, Letters and Papers of Major-General John Sullivan, Continental Army, ed. An estimated 29,000 British and American troops gathered at the fledgling town populated mostly by peaceful Quakers. [22]  Sullivan, Letters and Papers of Major-General John Sullivan, 462-464; Harris, Brandywine, 271-272. [49] Heitman, Historical Register, 505-6; State of Pennsylvania, Minutes of the Supreme Executive Council of the State of Pennsylvania, Vol. Unfortunately for the Americans, they were greatly outnumbered which exposed their flanks to attack. [31], Payroll data for the month of August 1777 reflects a total 9th Pennsylvania Regimental strength of 332 officer and men. He is not included as one of the forty causalities for this reason. Out of the sixteen missing men, three were POWs with one enlisting as a Loyalist, later deserting his Loyalist unit to return and desert the 9th Pennsylvania once more. These men served in five of the eight companies as listed in Table 3. On June 2, 2015, the President of the United States awarded Medal of Honor to Army Sgt. Your paper corroborates the 9th PA Regiment muster that lists Peter Miller and Benjamin Morris as KIA on September 11, 1777. There seems to be some confusion about where the wounded afore mentioned Adam Koch’s grave (McClellen) is located; one is Pennsylvania and the other North Carolina. That’s right, there is no complete list of soldiers who fought on September 11, 1777. Portions of Sullivan’s broken division, including Hazen’s 2nd Canadian and Ogden’s 1st New Jersey regiments, successfully formed on Sterling’s left or open flank. Battle of Brandywine reenactment at Sandy Hollow battlefield To understand the experience of the 9th Pennsylvania at Brandywine it is first helpful to review the order of battle and provide an overview of events that placed the 9th Pennsylvania on the right flank of the American defensive line on September 11, 1777. Sterling and Stephen followed roads, first marching east then turning north and deploying along Birmingham Hill. The nearest thing to a hard figure from the American side was by Major General Nathanael Greene, who estimated that Washington's army had lost between 1,200 and 1,300 men. Washington, D.C., 1892) 46, 306, 309, 372. The problem I think stems from the fact that there were several people involved in the Revolution named Adam Koch. Five additional staff assisted the primary field and staff including: Surgeons Mate Hamilton, Sgt. A Hessian officer listed the American casualty and captured … Children of Fallen Patriots Foundation provides college scholarships and educational counseling to military children who have lost a parent in the line of duty. The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of Major General George Washington and the British-Hessian army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777. [16] Sullivan, Letters and Papers of Major-General John Sullivan, 549. The British general Sir William Howe was lured to Philadelphia in the belief that its large Tory element would rise up when joined by a British army and thus virtually remove Pennsylvania from the war. Even more problematic is the challenge of identifying individual casualties by name. Heitman’s data on officers is valuable as a starting point, but contains many errors, specifically with the officer of the 9th Pennsylvania, and must be verified against the muster data and other sources. The two detached regiments guarded three additional fords, Jones’s, Wistar’s and Buffington’s, spreading elements of the division four miles to the north. Battle of Brandywine Aftermath The official British casualty list detailed 587 casualties: 93 killed (eight officers, seven sergeants and 78 rank and file); 488 wounded (49 officers, 40 sergeants, four drummers and 395 rank and file); and six rank and file missing unaccounted for Only 40 of the British Army's casualties were Hessians. 11 (Harrisburg, PA: Theo. Concl… We know what you did for us. [32] This data is inconsistent with General Conway’s letter of August 15, 1777 to the Board of War, Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, indicating, “The four Pennsylvania Regiments in Brigade are Very Weak one is two hundred men strong, the three others are upon an average, one hundred and sixty.”[33] General Conway may have intentionally understated the strength of his regiments to dramatize the situation with the political leadership of Pennsylvania or the numbers of men available for duty may have been well below the number accounted for and paid. Journal of the American Revolution is the leading source of knowledge about the American Revolution and Founding Era. [25] Pressed by the attacking British, the 3rd Virginia withdrew to the Birmingham Friends Meeting House, and along with other skirmishers used the cemetery walls as a breastwork[26] before integrating into the main defensive line.[27]. Exhausted from the day’s fight and the long flanking march, the British Army remained on the field and did not pursue the retreating Americans. It is because of him that I am a member of the Sons of the American Revolution, and proud of his service to our country! Thank you for your very informative article. [15], On the morning of September 11, 1777, the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment was part of a three-division force making up the right center of Washington’s Brandywine Creek defense in Chester County, Pennsylvania. The President remarked, “We know who you are. The Battle of Brandywine, or the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was a battle between the American army of Major General George Washington and the army of General Sir William Howe, comprising of British-Hessian army men. Only one of the sixteen missing men returned to full duty with the regiment.[44]. [41] We can speculate that these companies served on detached duty and were absent from the line of battle. Loved this article. The British defeated the Americans and forced them to withdraw toward the rebel capital of Philadelphia. The estimated effective strength is based on seventy-two percent of the men on the payroll present and effective for duty. [12] Conway was not well liked by his officers possibly because he trained and regularly drilled the brigade, turning it into one of the best disciplined units in the Continental Army. Accounts of the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment’s performance in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown reflect a new and relatively inexperienced unit that demonstrated the generally uncommon discipline needed to stand and fight close-quarter combat action against more disciplined and experienced British units. In late August 1777, after a distressing 34-day journey from Sandy Hook on the coast of New Jersey, a Royal Navy fleet of more than 260 ships carrying some 17,000 British troops under the command of British General Sir William Howe landed at the head of the Elk River, on the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay near present-day Elkton, Maryland (then known as Head of Elk), approximately 40–50 miles (60–80 km) southwest of Philadelphia. John B. It was fought on October 4, 1777, at Germantown, Pennsylvania, between the British Army led by Sir William Howe, and the American Continental Army, with the 2nd Canadian Regiment, under George Washington. Your email address will not be published. Library and Archives Canada, RG 8, “C” Series, Volume 1906, ; Volume 1907, 1, 49. In other words, at least four of sixteen or twenty-five percent of the missing men deserted the revolutionary cause to enlist in Loyalist units within two months of the battle. Battle of Brandywine Aftermath . Sullivan’s division, minus two regiments, occupied the ground east of Brandywine Creek between Chad’s and Brinton’s Fords. Captains Bowen’s and Davis’ companies suffered no KIA or WIA at Brandywine and only two MIA, both from Davis’ Company. Wounded include one sergeant, one corporal and fourteen privates. Table 1 lists the August 1777 payroll numbers for the 9 th Pennsylvania Regiment for each of the eight companies and provides an estimated effective strength for the unit on September 11 at the Battle of Brandywine. Brandywine was the first significant combat experienced by the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment. A name-by-name comparison of the company rosters over the fifteen month period between May 1777 and July 1778 proves interesting. The battle was inevitable as both camps had been planning for the battle beforehand. On September 11, 1777, American troops clashed with the British in the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania, resulting in an American defeat that allowed the British to easily capture Philadelphia later that month.. [19]  Sullivan, Letters and Papers of Major-General John Sullivan, 459; McGuire, The Philadelphia Campaign, 1:169-173. Unloading the ships proved to be a logistical proble… Sterling’s division, including the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment, formed on the left with Stephen’s division on the right, facing the British to the north. [12] Preston Russell, “The Conway Cabal,” American Heritage 46 (1) (1995): 1, accessed 7 May 2015, http://www.americanheritage.com/content/conway-cabal. However, that step will come in the future when the time becomes available for that important addition to the research. 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