Origin, Evolution, and Early Dispersal of Root and Tuber Crops Jorge Leon1 Tropical root and tuber crops have been domesticated in Southeast Asia, west-central Africa, and tropical Latin America (including the high Andes). primary and more ancient crops in contrast to secondary ones, allowing him to characterize with good precision the centers where agriculture originated and the pathways along which it was dispersed. idly accumulating record on the origins of agriculture. Agricultural was slow to develop, and it was not until the introduction of iron tools and techniques from Korea in the Kofun Period (c. 250 - 538 CE) that progress was made in efficiency. Benjamin G. 1985. In any investigation, confirming the when and where … In the long term: three themes in Malaysian cultural ecology. Indian agriculture began by 9000 BCE on north-west India as a result of early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals. (1952) Agricultural origins and dispersals New York: American Geographical Society Smith, B.D. She has conducted extensive fieldwork throughout the Near East, including in Iran, Israel, Turkey, and Syria. Origin and Dispersal of Common Millet and Foxtail Millet* By SADAO SAKAMOTO Plant Germ-plasm Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University (Mozume, Muko, Kyoto, 617 Japan) In Eurasia, both winter and summer cereal crops have been cultivated over a wide range of environmental conditions. The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively. For example, seeds dispersal of corn does not happen because of the way modern husked ears have been selected. Settled life soon followed with implements and techniques being developed for agriculture. London: Routledge Curzon. origin and dispersal, if understood, is impor- tant if we are to come to an understanding of (1) how man was manipulating and changing specific types of plants to bring them under cultivation, (2) the effects of the nature of the plants (seed or vegetal) on the agricultural systems developed, and (3) the Sauer, C.O. The crops belong to different families. Many cultivated plants and domesticated animals came from the same regions of the world, called centers of origin . Principal Attributes of Agricultural Origins and Crop Domestication 2.1 Geography and Ecology of the Origin of Agriculture and Domestication 2.2 The Concept of Domestication Double monsoons led to two harvests being reaped in one year. Keywords: domestication, crop dispersal, Columbian exchange, genetic bottleneck, biodiversity, center of domestication Contents 1. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., 2n = 2x = 12) is an economically important leafy vegetable that is consumed worldwide (Morelock and Correll 2008).Although the origin of cultivated spinach is uncertain, it is believed to have been domesticated in the area of present Iran, former Persia, around 2,000 years ago (Rubatzky and Yamaguchi 1997; Morelock and Correll 2008). In: Glover I, Bellwood P, editors. Her zooarchaeological research has revolutionized the understanding of animal domestication. Winter cereals, such as Southeast Asia from prehistory to history. Bellwood P. 2004. The four papers in this issue, likewise, add new and re- vised data on the origin and dispersal of farming from the Mediterranean Levant into western Europe. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa.At least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin. In: Hutterer KL, Rambo AT, Lovelace G, edi-tors. 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