Ego Development Theory and Ken Wilber’s AQAL model of human consciousness evolution. Because of this, any diagram that tries to illustrate the STAGES progression layered on top of the typical AQAL zones diagram looks a bit tangled. In this section I discuss the larger context and motivations for this paper, which is to provide theoretical and empirical validity background information for STAGES; and to do this in support of an R&D project creating a computer-based AI scoring system for the SCT. This primary hypothesis was tested for levels up to Strategist (“<=4.5”). A Developmental Model of Critical Thinking. She notes that despite its correlation with other measurements, “the SCT does not intend to predict behavior, measure social adjustment, or evaluate psychopathology ” (p. 10). For example, every response must be scored even if it is incomplete or fragmentary. According to Jespersen et al. This nuance is unimportant for our current purposes. Unpublished manuscript, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. Palgrave Macmillan. However, Westenberg et. The vast majority of scholarship on thinking skills, whether it be in the academic areas (“silos”) of critical thinking, scientific reasoning, civic engagement, leadership and workforce readiness, wisdom studies, or personality traits, overlooks the developmental nature of these skills and does not cite the important research in adult developmental theory. They begin to examine previously taken-for-granted assumptions and explore the fundamental questions about knowing and reality. A child may learn each of these skills separately: running, catching a ball, throwing a ball, and what it means to coordinate movement with others. [45] Cook-Greuter’s method of scoring the two latest stages that she added to the Loevinger model went one step in the direction of more generality in having a single set of exemplars and principles that held for all 36 stems—vs the scoring instructions for all earlier levels which have separate exemplars for each of the 36 stems. In what follows when we speak of the validity of the WUSCT we are including all of these things, though we mainly focus on the SCT itself. the scoring instructions contain thousands of categorized (actual) sentence completions, rather than descriptions of conceptual or  syntactic properties of the completion text. Measuring Ego Development, Volume 1: Construction and Use of a Sentence Completion Test (The Jossey- Loevinger, Jane, Wessler, Ruth Published by Jossey-Bass Inc Pub (1970) The Washington University Sentence Completion Test, which was developed by Jane Loevinger, is a free-response, semi-projective instrument for the assessment of ego development. Barker, E. H., & Torbert, W. R. (2011). As mentioned above, psychologists differentiate between functional (or characteristic) vs. optimal (ideal) performance, where the former represents everyday or average cognition and the latter represents the maximum capacity possible within ideal or well-supported contexts. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1987. Murray, T. (2011; and to appear). Integral Leadership Review, 6(3), 1-17. The WUSCT scale score assesses the test taker’s level of development within Loevinger’s ego development model as was shown in Table 1. Therefore, our argument for STAGES validity rests largely on WUSCT studies. In addition, the WUSCT has demonstrated substantial incremental validity above and beyond intelligence measures in the prediction of personality traits among nonclinical participants (Westenberg & Block, 1993) and length of stay and problematic ward behavior among, reared apart, Newman and Bouchard (1998) also found that WUSCT possesses considerable genetic variance even after controlling statistically for the effects of intelligence measures. The business of developmental scoring became a business, expanding the potential for the developmental perspective to benefit society, while also taking on the risks and concerns implied in commercializing the results of an academic project. Numerous studies have used statistical methods (including homogeneity, factor, cluster analyses) to show that the ego development construct measured by the WUSCT “loads on a single factor,” i.e. Boston, MA: Shambhala Press. Measuring ego development: Construction and use o fa Sentence Completion Test, Vol. Dynamic cycles of cognitive and brain development: Measuring growth in mind, brain, and education. However, to a first approximation, this set of skills can be successfully integrated into a single developmental construct, as has been done by Loevinger, Kegan, and others. This, and the paucity of data on the MAP side, makes the systems difficult to compare using replicability methods. Cook-Greuter and Torbert developed the MAP/GLP/LDP instruments based on the WUSCT (we save O’Fallon’s STAGES model for a later section). Additionally, the administrator should only answer questions regarding the test in a non-committal fashion, reiterating that the subject may complete the stem however he or she wishes. College learning for the new global century. Appendix 1 contains a short summary of the arguments and conclusions contained in the article, which can serve as an “executive summary” for the reader. The Washington University Sentence Completion Test ( WUSCT) is a sentence completion test created by Jane Loevinger, which measures ego development along Loevinger's stages of ego development. Finally, as predicted by Loevinger’s model of ego development, WUSCT scores have shown curvilinear relations with measures of conformity (Hoppe & Loevinger, 1977; Westenberg & Block, 1993). Kegan, R., Lahey, L., & Souvaine, E. (1998). Wilber developed his AQAL model through an interdisciplinary meta-theoretic analysis of over 100 separate theories, many of them describing processes of complex change, evolution, or development (Wilber, 2000, 2006). (2004a, p. 485) notes “the scoring manual for the SCT [32-item youth version] consists of over 2000 response categories…about 80 response categories for each of the 32 items.” The scoring manual used by Cook-Greuter, Torbert, and associates is over 300 pages long, with one chapter of examples for each of the 36 stems, with, usually, dozens of examples in each category. Walsh, R. (2015). Over succeeding years and many conversations with Wilber and other colleagues, she refined the STAGES model into its current form. Generating and Measuring Practical Differences in Leadership Performance at Postconventional Action-Logics. Loevinger conceived of an ego development system that would closely resemble moral development but be both broader in scope and utilize empirical methods of study. Reflective thinking in adulthood: Emergence, development, and variation. Second, each of the four scorers was compared separately with CG/L scores. Pals, J. L., & John, O. P. (1998). Bursik, K. (1991). & Rosch, E. (1981). In Pfaffenberger, A. Marko, P., & Combs, A. 2nd PP: The second person perspective stages foreground the concrete ‘We’ (2.0 Rule-oriented and 2.5 Conformist). Kuhn, D. (1999). As could be expected, differences between (trained) scorers tend to average out, and scorers were “more confident on judging the ego level of a total protocol than that of a single response out of context” (IBID, p. 5). [34] Stein (2008, p. 15): “Developmental metrics are simply attempts to improve upon the ways we have always already made development judgments of each other and ourselves.” Manners & Durkin, 2001, p. 543): “evaluating the theoretical and logical coherence of ego development is inseparable from evaluating the construct validity of the WUSCT.”, [35] King (2011, p. 165) notes “Ego development is a difficult concept to grasp. 39-70). A key difference is that STAGES purports to be domain-independent. (Items with a question mark are more open to interpretation or placed in questionable locations.). We have mentioned the implications of the first (stem modifications), and have also noted the second (commercialization). In addition, one becomes more active in one’s attempts to investigate, discover, and later manipulate and change, and later possibly design or create new objects of this type. Several of these have been validated in the sense that enough data has been gathered to show that they have psychometric properties comparable to the original SCT (primarily the Cronbach’s Alpha measure of internal consistency). So, in looking at the human condition through this new lens, we can ask: What properties are shaved off of the earlier model’s descriptions for each level, and what properties are added? The progression from individual to collective at the Metaware tier is even more difficult to describe. Internal consistency measures the correlation between items on a test. “State” points to any experience one is having in any moment, and “Stage” points to stable developmentally attained patterns of behavior, understanding, or knowledge. The initial target was to determine at what point along the continuum of ego development the patient’s level of structural development falls. In these stages (5.0 Construct Aware and 5.5 Transpersonal), the ‘I’ is foregrounded but the subtle ‘We’ remains as a context for this I. [one remains] aware of the pseudo-reality created by words…[and becomes] aware of the profound splits and paradoxes inherent in rational thought…Good and evil, life and death, beauty and ugliness may now appear as two sides of the same coin, as mutually necessitating and defining each other. If an individual is thriving adequately within their context, why push development? O’Fallon, T. J. Figure 1: AQAL -Quadrant/8-Zone model, Adapted from Wilber, 2006. [45] STAGES scoring is not exemplar-based and looks almost exclusively at the underlying structure and nature of completions using the general principles described above. Loevinger (1985, p. 424) describes the span of stems in a related way: “Looking at item content, the stems can be classed as first person (My father— , When they talked about sex, I—), third person (Sometimes she wished that— , Usually he felt that sex—), and common noun or impersonal (A good father—, Being with other people—).”. The test has been characterized as a good test for clinical use as it can measure across distinct psychopathologies and help in choosing treatment modalities; to this end, it is used by many clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. E/I: Third, Exterior manifestations of a thing are understood before Interior manifestations. This helps explain the intuition that a certain level of complexity in the “cognitive line” in some way precedes or is a prerequisite for ego development (wisdom skill).[15]. The SCT assesses capacity at a moment in time, and it is possible that an individual is not “on top of their game” on that particular day and time. The first manual for administering and scoring the test was published in 1970. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(3), 481-495. It is self-evident that people can have very strong intellectual skills while having deplorable socio-emotional skills. Another often cited interpretation is that of Fleiss (1981), which describes values over .75 as “excellent.”, [58] In the research summary given in O’Fallon (2013) the phrase “near perfect agreement” was used in alignment with convention. Defining and assessing wisdom: A review of the literature. This body of work compellingly supports the validity and usefulness of the SCT. In P.M. Westenberg, A. Blasi, & L.D. [57] The replicability of all four STAGES scorers (for levels <=4.5) was found to be in the “excellent” range. For example, Kegan et al. Samples were drawn from over 1000 inventories previously scored using the CG/L method (O’Fallon, 2013). In M. E. Miller & S. Cook-Greuter (Eds. [28] Loevinger also says (IBID p. 289) “Redmore and Waldman (1975) report several
 small studies of short-term retest effects…There appears to be a tendency for scores to decline on retest after a week or two, averaging about half a stage. The STAGES model posits that, in a general way, meaning making development moves in a particular way within these dimensions of polarities. Undoubtedly these four drivers work in a rather messy way that is somewhat nested as in the theory but they also work somewhat in parallel (as well as in ways not addressed by the theory at all). One of the innovations of STAGES over prior ego-development frameworks is that it purports a systematic underlying structure to explain the development of meaning making. Psychological Review, 87(6), 477-531. Ego development and the WUSCT. One’s state is defined by which elements (nodes, neurons, ideas, etc.) The ogive rules respect this peculiarity and allow for it” (Holt et al., 1980, p. 917). An asterisk in Figure 2 indicates levels STAGES adds to Cook-Greuter’s model. In Loevinger, J. These additional levels are defined based on the architecture of the STAGES model (see the asterisks in Figure 1). O’Fallon’s STAGES model is a more significant departure within this lineage. Definitions of levels of different models do not usually line up in any exact way, but share enough characteristics that they are comparable. Psychology Press. If conditions are right, over time this can create a spiral of ever-increasing development and complexity in culture and society. But how do we precisely describe this intuition about human potential—what is in common among those whom we admire as wise?[4]. Thus, individuals at middle levels are the most compliant, interpersonally pleasant, and authoritarian. The anecdotal lore in the practice community is that it is quite difficult for a person to score much higher than their “actual” capacity, which is the case with any valid assessment of a skill that grows hierarchically (e.g. The focus is on one’s concrete needs and wants. 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